Minor League Baseball has apparently found a solution to its financial problems at Vero Beach Sports Village, at the same time infusing a bit of history and new investors into the former Dodgertown complex in Florida.
Minor League Baseball announced today that it has formed a partnership with former Dodgers president Peter O’Malley and his sister Terry Seidler, along with former Dodgers pitchers Hideo Nomo and Chan Ho Park. Each of the five entities will have an equal stake in the Vero Beach complex, which Minor League Baseball has been operating at a loss as a training and sports destination facility for the past two and a half years.
The deal requires approval by officials from Indian River County, which owns the complex and leases it to Minor League Baseball.
The Ottawa City Council has made official its interest in luring affiliated baseball back to town and government officials have said that a Double-A team has expressed interest in relocating to Ottawa Stadium.
City officials voted unanimously to explore finding a full-time tenant to lease out the ballpark that hosted a Triple-A International League team from 1993-2007.
The identity of the mystery team—or if it even exists—interested in heading north of the border remains unclear.
As was the case when the Richmond market opened up two years ago, the Erie Sea Wolves and Binghamton Mets are rumored to be interested in relocating. However, both teams, which ranked at the bottom of Eastern League attendance this season, have denied any involvement in Ottawa.
The Ghosts are on the move.
The Rockies are set to move their Rookie-level Pioneer League affiliate from Casper, where it has played for the past 10 years, to Grand Junction, Colo. The relocation is pending approval by the Grand Junction city council, which is scheduled to vote on the issue today.
Rumors of a potential move started soon after Rockies majority owners Charles and Richard Monfort purchased the Casper club last offseason. According to the Caspar Star-Tribune, the Monforts believe moving the team to a larger market in Grand Junction will provide an opportunity to develop a bigger fanbase for the club.
Playing conditions have also long been in an issue in Casper, where the Ghosts’ Mike Lansing Field has long been prone to flooding. The team had operated without a groundscrew before this season and did not have a tarp to cover the infield other than the pitcher’s mound.
In late 2008, a four-game homestand against Billings ended with just one inning being played after both team managers refused to allow their players take the field due to poor playing conditions.
“The field issues haven’t been settled, but it’s improved,” Rockies farm director Marc Gustafson said earlier this season. “When you’re talking about a field that has had so many issues with drainage problems over the years, it is probably a frustrating process for a lot of folks. But the important thing for us is having a quality surface for our players.”
The Rockies will apparently get just that in Grand Junction, whose Stocker Stadium is undergoing an $8.3 million. Also home to the Junior College World Series and Mesa State College athletics, the stadium will feature new dugouts in addition to renovated seating, concessions and concourse.
Triple-A Scranton-Wilkes/Barre still has no plans in place for where it will play next season while its ballpark gets a $40 million facelift.
The deadline previously set by the International League came and went today without a proposal from Scranton leadership on a potential site (or sites) for where the team hopes to play in 2012. International League president Randy Mobley had set today’s board of directors meeting in Albuquerque as the deadline for a final proposal from the team. Mobley said in a statement today that “league directors have established a timeline and process that will assure this matter is resolved in a timely manner.”
Mobley did not immediately return a phone call seeking further comment.
Mobley had previously said that the Yankees were considering roughly six locations to play next season and would prefer the team to stay within the International League footprint.
One source familiar with the situation said that Scranton had narrowed its choices down to a couple teams and expected a decision shortly. Figuring out how to make the schedules work was the main roadblock, the source said.
Among possible sites under consideration are fellow International League affiliates Lehigh Valley and Rochester. Both Lehigh Valley president Kurt Landes and Rochester CEO Naomi Silver have said they are open to hosting the Yankees, though Silver said the Red Wings could accommodate Scranton for just half the season.
In May, Pennsylvania Gov. Tom Corbett approved a $20 million state grant to renovate PNC Field. The Lackawanna County Stadium Authority will match the grant with $20 million to complete the project. The majority of that money will come from the proceeds of a previously agreed upon $14.6 million sale of the team to SWB Yankees LLC—an entity made up of the New York Yankees and Mandalay Baseball that currently operates the team.
The sale of the team had yet to be brought before the league, and Mobley had previously said he expected it to be finalized at today’s meetings. He also said he expected it to be approved.
“Everybody realizes how significant the sales proceeds are to make this (ballpark renovation) happen, so you aren’t going to let them continue down this path if you anticipate there to be opposition to the sale,” Mobley said lat month. “If there were something in the early phases that would cause the league to blow it up, that would have already occurred.”
The Lynchburg Hillcats may have a tough time finding a spot in their ballpark to honor Calvin Falwell. That’s because there are few part of it available that don’t already pay homage to the team’s founder, who passed away on Saturday night at the age of 90 after suffering a heart attack on his way to a Hillcats game.
The stadium is named in his honor—Calvin Falwell Field at Lynchburg City Stadium—and Falwell’s name is displayed in center field and on the front of the building. He is honored in the stadium lobby as part of the city’s hall of fame and on another plaque in the garden area by the front gate.
“The best thing about it,” Lynchburg general manager Paul Sunwall says, “is that he got to see it all done while he was living.”
The recognition is certainly just for Falwell, who spearheaded the ownership group that brought the team to town in 1966 and worked hard to make sure it stuck around one of minor league baseball’s smallest markets.
Falwell attended all but a handful of Lynchburg’s home games this season and was a familiar face for fans in his suite. He remained team president until November 2009, passing on the duties vice president Rex Angel. Falwell ran the team’s monthly owners meetings until the past few years.
Sunwall, in his 32nd season with the Hillcats, says Falwell will be missed for more than his business acumen. “He will be missed for his presence and smile and southern hospitality. He was well liked and loved in the community.”
And it was in the community that Falwell embodied much of what minor league baseball strives to be. He opened Falwell Airport with his brother Lawrence in 1947 and worked on a number of community endeavors, including helping form the Lynchburg Little League in 1957, as well as being a regular contributor to the city’s Boys and Girls Clubs, Salvation Army and the local hospital.
“He was a very community-oriented guy,” Sunwall said. “He was very down to earth, very humble. He was never one to brag about his wealth.”
The Carolina League fell upon hard times in the 1970s as its enrollment dwindled to four teams. Falwell was one of the leaders in reviving the league.
“But for him and a few colleagues, we may not have had a league,” says John Hopkins, who has served as Carolina League president since 1984. “For me, personally, he was a beloved friend and a trusted confidante.”
Falwell was the Carolina League’s first representative on Minor League Baseball’s board of trustees and remained an officer in the league until 2010.
“He worked with four or five league presidents over the years,” Hopkins said. “There isn’t much he didn’t do.”
The man who helped build one of minor league baseball's most successful franchises is stepping down. Alan Ledford, the Triple-A Sacramento River Cats president/general manager/chief operating officer, announced his resignation on Thursday.
Ledford is leaving "to pursue future business interests in the sports and entertainment industry," the team announced in a release. His resignation will be effective June 24. Vice president of business operations Jeff Savage, the son of team owner Susan Savage, will take over Ledford's responsibilities as general manager.
Ledford did not immediately return a request for an interview.
Ledford, Baseball America's Executive of the Year in 2006, joined the River Cats in 2002 as president and COO before adding GM duties in 2004. He helped the River Cats top all of minor league baseball in attendance for 10 straight seasons beginning when the club debut in 2000.
The team was equally innovative at the ballpark and in the community under Ledford. Sacramento's Raley Field was one of the first stadiums in professional sports to go wireless in 2002, and has made fan amenities and entertainment one of its top priorities. In 2005, the River Cats helped form and sponsor a field in the community where children with disabilities can play baseball.
After several months of deliberating over his future, Minor League Baseball president Pat O’Conner decided to run for a second four-year term in office. He notified the National Association board of trustees of his decision on May 24, one week before the required deadline.
O’Conner joined Minor League Baseball 19 years ago and spent 12 years as former president Mike Moore’s right-hand man before replacing him in December 2007. He had previously expressed concerns about serving a second term due to differing philosophies with the board of trustees on the direction of the sport.
O'Conner has worked to build the sport's national brand, leading the industry on several endeavors that go beyond teams' individual markets. And while many members of the board previously praised O'Conner's work—which includes extending the Professional Baseball Agreement with Major League Baseball, the launch of the Baseball Internet Rights Co., and overseeing the sport's growth during the recession—they also expressed doubts about some of his big ideas.
I read one of those cute blog posts this morning highlighting all of the pop-culture reasons why you're old, including the fact that the cast of the television show "Boy Meets World" are now all in their early 30s. Does it make me even older if I never heard of "Boy Meets World?"
Apparently, plenty of people in Fresno are familiar with the hit '90s show, as nearly 7,000 fans came out to Chukchansi Park last night for this promotion: Mad Tight 90s Night Meets World, featuring Ben "Cory Matthews" Savage appearance from Boy Meets World.
The biggest draw of the night came in Indianapolis, as the Indians filled Victory Field with 12,565 fans on Education Day and Thursday Value Pack Night—which, for a $15 ticket, included a hot dog, unlimited soda and choice of souvenir item.
Fortunately, my kids don't read this blog and thus won't know that two teams offered Silly Bandz giveaways last night. Otherwise, there would be plenty of clamoring for a road trip to Peoria and Syracuse.
As Always, Thirsty Thursday was the promotion du jour, as 33 of the scheduled 60 games last night offered some variety of the promotion. Two of those games were rained out, leaving 31 Thirsty Thursday games that drew a total of 95,686 fans (or a 3,086 per-game average).
Again, factors other than promotions do impact attendance, like weather (which has been a challenge for many teams this season) and Josh Hamilton minor league starts (Frisco drew 10,998 as the AL MVP made his second rehab start last night).
Below is a list of the scheduled promotions and attendance figures from last night's games.
The weather was pretty miserable throughout much of the Eastern League last night, so perhaps "Richard Simmons Short Shorts Night" in Akron and "Fisher Cats Wing-Off" in New Hampshire could have been even bigger hits with better temperatures. The two promotions still drew 2,508 and 3,177 fans, respectively, close to each team's average attendance.
The Double-A Frisco Roughriders had no promotion for last night listed on their schedule but still drew a minor league-high 8,313 fans. Perhaps they knew all along that Josh Hamilton would be starting a five-game rehab stint.
There were discounted drinks and food aplenty around the minors. The Double-A Mobile BayBears offered $1 glasses of wine for "Ladies Night" while high Class A Modesto Nuts offered $2 vino as part of "Wine Down Wednesday." The best bargain may have been in high Class A Lake Elsinore, where fans could feast on free hot dogs as part of "Wacky Weenie Wednesday." The low Class A Lexington Legends upped the ante a bit by offering "34-Cent Hot Dog Night" and drew 7,861 fans. And the Triple-A Columbus Clippers drew 6,651 on "50-Cent Wing Night."
Below is a complete listing of last night's promotions and attendance figures.
Whether it be a Bark in the Park afternoon, an Awful Night or a Thirsty Thursday, the ultimate goal of minor league promotions is the same: to draw attention to your team and fans to the ballpark.
With that in mind, below is a chart tracking last night's attendance figures and promotions for every minor league baseball team. While promotions certainly impact a team's performance at the gate, they are not the only factor in how a team draws—weather, rehab starts, Stephen Strasburg (last year) and other factors can certainly determine how many fans come through the turnstiles.
The big winner of the day appears to be Triple-A Las Vegas, which sold out Cashman Field (11,001) on an Education Day promotion. Sadly, Double-A Akron's Fish Appreciation Night got washed out.
All but a handful of minor league teams participate in the Kraft Singles Tuesday Night Tickets deal, in which fans can redeem two tickets for the price of one when they bring a wrapper to the ballpark. Minor League Baseball reports that wrapper redemption is up 13 percent compared to last year.
The future of minor league baseball in Scranton looks significantly brighter after new Pennsylvania Gov. Tom Corbett approved a $20 million state grant last week, as part of a $40 million stadium renovation project.
The Scranton/Wilkes-Barre franchise has been on a years-long quest to spruce up its deteriorating ballpark, which now ranks behind only Buffalo's ballpark as the oldest in the International League. While Buffalo's Coca-Cola Field has been frequently updated in its 23 years, however, PNC Field has not been since opening in 1989.
The state grant gives ballpark renovation efforts a huge boost, though plenty of questions still need resolution—ranging from the status of the team's sale to where the Yankees will play during construction—before it is time to roll out the wrecking ball.
"There are more questions than answers right now," International League president Randy Mobley said. "Hopefully over the next several weeks, we will be able to fill in some of those questions with answers."
The renovation project was put in motion last year when outgoing Gov. Ed Rendell signed off on the $20 million grant from the state's redevelopment fund. Corbett had spent the past four months reviewing the project before approving it.
The Lackawanna County stadium authority will match the grant with $20 million to complete the project. The majority of that money will come from the proceeds of a previously agreed upon $14.6 million sale of the team to SWB Yankees LLC—the entity made up of the New York Yankees and Mandalay Baseball that currently operates the team.
The Double-A Huntsville Stars pushed back today's series-opener against Jacksonville until tomorrow, and will offer free tickets to all local residents. The 11 a.m. game is the team's first home contest since tornadoes rolled through the city last Wednesday.
The team called off today's game for practical and safety issues—the ballpark and most local businesses were without electricity until late Sunday night, Stars general manager Buck Rogers said, and they were concerned about providing adequate housing for visiting players and umpires. Curfews had been in place in Huntsville, and more storms were forecast for today.
While the team was on the road over the weekend, Huntsville opened up Joe W. Davis Municipal Stadium as a sanctuary for relief workers and local residents. Although the ballpark had no electricity, its kitchen—which works off gas heat—remained in working order. The team dished out roughly 8,000 meals, Rogers said, as several local restaurants emptied their freezers and brought food to the ballpark that would have spoiled.
"We had some really good food here," Rogers said. "Nobody was going to starve in this town."
The Stars hope to provide relief to fans once more with the free game tomorrow.
"The best thing we can do is take their minds off of everything going on," Rogers said. "We don't feel right about charging then for (the game). We're going to do one for the community—it's the least we can do for the support they've given us for the last couple of years."
It is often said that only a small percentage of fans go to minor league games because of the action on the field.
While certainly the average Baseball America reader is an exception to that rule, even passionate fans can break away from the game long enough for something good to eat. And as teams invest more in the ballpark experience, the quality of fare being dished out at diamonds around the sport has risen well beyond your basic hot dog and peanuts.
So rather than offer you my opinion on what's good to eat— to be honest, when I go to games with the family, I'm usually shuttling chicken fingers and fries to my kids—I'm going to enlist folks who regularly get to a variety ballparks around the country to help you find the best selections from menus across the country.
This running feature will be known as "Ballpark Bites." Kicking off the first installment is a man who spends around 200 nights a year on the road and visits about 75 minor league ballparks every season.
There are no guarantees in minor league baseball, and building a winning operation is certainly no easy task. But owners lucky enough to land a new ballpark or move to a market eager for a team typically fare pretty well at the gate.
The Gwinnett Braves (International) had both of those factors working in their favor when they left Richmond, Va., for a new, publicly funded stadium in suburban Atlanta in 2009, but they have proven to be the rare exception to the rule.
Simply put, the turnstiles have not been spinning for the G-Braves. In their debut season, the Braves' Triple-A affiliate averaged just 5,966 fans a game—placing them third from the bottom in the 14-team International League. That number dipped almost 20 percent last season, as Gwinnett drew 4,818 fans a game—the second-worst average in the IL.
Second-year general manager North Johnson is confident that will all change in 2011. With a full offseason to prepare (Johnson came on board just 10 weeks before Opening Day last season) and with trusted lieutenants from his previous posts at Kinston and Myrtle Beach, both in the Carolina League, now on staff in Gwinnett, the veteran minor league operator expects to see a significant boost in attendance this season.
Really, there is no other option at this point.
“If we don’t have a 15 to 20 percent increase (in attendance) this year, then we have to go back to the drawing board,” Johnson said. “We have done a lot of things this offseason that are proven commodities in other markets. Group sales are up. Interest in the community is up. Fundraising numbers are up.
"That should easily result in an increase in attendance.”
An overflow crowd is expected for Opening Day at low Class A Quad Cities. Unfortunately, an overflowing Mississippi River is in the forecast, too.
Planning for Opening Day is challenging enough without the wrinkle of a potential record-breaking flood, but that is how River Bandits general manager Kirk Goodman spent the weeks leading up to Thursday’s game against the Beloit Snappers.
The previously dire predictions of the Mississippi swelling up to 10 feet above flood levels have been scaled back thanks to a recent cold stretch that slowed the snowmelt further north up the river in Minnesota. But the river is still expected to reach 16 feet, roughly 1 foot above flood level, and create an inconvenience on Opening Day with the potential of more to come later this spring.
The River Bandits' plan for Thursday: play on.
“Our ballpark will still be functional during a flood,” Goodman said.
That functionality is a credit to the $2 million offseason project that expanded the ballpark’s flood protection system, which has helped keep it dry during the most recent floods. A new flood wall featuring portable barriers that should protect the ballpark in floodwaters up to 24 feet was built on the north side of the facility, nearest the Mississippi River. The plaza in front of the stadium was replaced with an impermeable concrete plaza.
A second phase of the construction is expected to continue during the season and will include an earthen berm and pedestrian walkway that fans will be able to use to enter and exit the ballpark in times of floods.
Goodman expects this week’s flooding to be an inconvenience for fans – they likely won’t be able to use the regular parking lots across the street from the ballpark – but should not jeopardize the games.
“We should be able to withstand it and be fine,” said Goodman, noting that that will mark the third year of flooding in the four years since Opening Day Partners purchased the team. “It will be a memorable experience for our fans to come to a game at a ballpark that is basically an island.”
While labor strife looms in other professional sports, Major League Baseball and the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues (NAPBL) agreed to an extension of their working agreement—three years before it expired.
MLB and MiLB announced today a six-year extension of the Professional Baseball Agreement (PBA) six years through the 2020 season. The PBA, the agreement that guides the two organizations' relationship, ensures major league teams will field at least 160 minor league affiliates through the life of the extension.
A source confirmed that the only significant change in the agreement is the tax rate on tickets that minor league teams pay major league clubs. The rate was supposed to increase from 6.5 percent to 7 percent after the 2014 season, but will remain at 6.5 percent for an additional two years, the source said. The agreement essentially saves minor league baseball $2 million over the two-year period, the source said.
Minor League Baseball president Pat O'Conner first broke news of the PBA extension at the Winter Meetings in December, with MLB executive vice president of baseball development Jimmie Lee Solomon confirming that the deal was close to finalized pending approval from commissioner Bud Selig.
"Major League Baseball is very happy to continue its partnership with Minor League Baseball," Selig said in a release today. "Nearly 115 million fans attended major league and minor league games last season, and the security of this agreement will allow us to build on the prosperity that our game has achieved."
"The extension of the Professional Baseball Agreement ensures the future of professional baseball through the end of the decade," O'Conner said in the release. "I would like to thank commissioner Selig for his leadership and support in ushering this agreement to fruition. The major league owners have shown great confidence in our relationship by agreeing to this extension, and the cooperation, hard work and diligence of Jimmie Lee Solomon in spearheading the effort of the Office of the Commissioner exemplifies the trust of our relationship."
Jeff Moorad appears likely to sell his newly acquired Pacific Coast League franchise if California's budget problems crush a new ballpark project in suburban San Diego.
Local leaders in Escondido, a city of roughly 140,000 people 31 miles north of Petco Park, approved a $50 million project to build a new ballpark for Moorad's Triple-A team, which played last year in Portland but got pushed out of that city when its ballpark was converted to a soccer stadium.
But new California Gov. Jerry Brown, with his state government facing a massive budget deficit, is considering abolishing municipal redevelopment agencies, a bureaucratic way of saying the state money for the ballpark project would go away. That would kill the project.
Moorad, who is also CEO of the Padres, purchased the franchise from Merritt Paulson last October (the sale was completed early this year) with the intention of moving it to Escondido. The team is in Tucson now–and will be called the Tucson Padres–but the plan was to move it to Escondido for the 2013 season, when the ballpark was completed.
If the ballpark project falls through, however, Moorad may put the team back on the market.
Steve Peace, a consultant to Moorad's investment group, said that the group will consider three options if the ballpark project falls through: sell to one of the other groups Paulson had talked to, sell the team to a local Tucson group, or find another suburban San Diego community where it can build a new ballpark.
Because new ballpark construction projects in California would likely depend on redevelopment money from the state—a proposed new downtown stadium for the NFL's San Diego Chargers will also be scrapped if Brown's proposal is approved by the state legislature—Moorad is unlikely to find another site in California to build a ballpark. That would leave him with the two options of selling the team.
Peace said it would be premature to to assume the franchise will be sold, though he did confirm those are the options Moorad is considering if the Escondido project falls through.
Minor League Baseball president Pat O'Conner has yet to decide if he will seek re-election when his term expires after this season.
O'Conner, who was elected president in December 2007 after serving as chief operating officer since 1993 and vice president since 1995, must notify the National Association Board of Trustees by May 31 if he plans to seek a second term.
"This is a process, and I will evaluate my situation, personally and professionally," O'Conner said. "I will evaluate where the industry and the organization is. I will evaluate if it is a situation where I think I can be a help to the board and the industry as president . . . It's a different world today than when I signed on four years ago. I've got a different board (of trustees) and a different set of economic situations."
Among the accomplishments over his tenure, O'Conner notes the soon-to-be-formalized six-year extension of the Professional Baseball Agreement (PBA). The agreement that guides the relationship between Minor League Baseball and Major League Baseball is set to expire in 2014, and its early extension (which O'Conner says should be completed soon) is an indication of the harmonious relationship between the two organizations. O'Conner first announced the deal at the Winter Meetings.
O'Conner also oversaw the creation of the Baseball Internet Rights Company, which put every minor league team's Website under the umbrella of Major League Baseball Advanced Media. Minor League Baseball also set up a new headquarters complex in St. Petersburg, Fla., acquired Dodgertown—the historic former spring training home of the Los Angeles Dodgers in Vero Beach, Fla.—and renovated Durham Athletic Park—the old home of the Durham Bulls made famous in the movie Bull Durham.
"While they have not been financially successful, I think Vero Beach and Durham are marquee assets," O'Conner said.
"I don't think you can do this job half-hearted," he added. "You either want to do it and do it effectively, or you step aside and let someone else do it. We've accomplished an awful lot in four years and the 19 I've been around."
Before news of the Kinston/Carolina/Pensacola shift broke last week, I called down to Huntsville general manager Buck Rogers to see if he could confirm the many rumors that his ballclub was in fact on its way out of town.
"If you were the owner of a team and you were packing a team up, you wouldn't be spending money and putting effort into fixing (the ballpark) up," Rogers replied, essentially shooting down those rumors.
(Team owner Miles Prentice later called back as well, responding to the question of whether he's selling the team by stating that they're trying to make things work in Huntsville, but that you can never rule anything out.)
So, no, Huntsville is staying put and working to improve what has been a challenging couple of seasons. Prentice is partnering with the city on a few much-needed renovations to Joe W. Davis Municipal Stadium. Much of the work is more baseball-related than fan-related, geared toward providing a better product for their big league affiliate Milwaukee Brewers.
Bobby Brett finally owns only one California League team.
After a year of trying, Brett sold the high Class A High Desert Mavericks to the Main Street Baseball ownership group headed by David Heller. Brett had been looking to sell the club since purchasing fellow Cal League affiliate Rancho Cucamonga in 2009.
Main Street Baseball, which also owns the low Class A Quad Cities River Bandits (Midwest League), has committed to keep the team in High Desert for at least one season.
However, how long the team stays put remains uncertain. Brett has long contended that Stater Bros. Stadium either needs to be renovated or replaced—neither proposition interested local city officials. The team did recently negotiate a two-year lease extension, though the Mavericks do have an out clause.
Main Street Baseball did have success rejuvenating Quad Cities, increasing attendance from 2,254 in 2007 to 3,502 last season thanks in part to several ballpark upgrades.
“We want to see if the same kind of opportunity exists with the Mavericks,” Main Street Baseball vice president Kirk Goodman said. “Seeing as how we just bought the team we have to get in there and see what there is to work with. That’s our next goal, is to really evaluate what the market has to offer.”
Kinston Names New GM
The High Class A Kinston Indians will introduce Benjamin Jones as the Carolina League club's new general manager today.
The 30-year-old Jones, who grew up in nearby Raleigh, spent the previous four seasons as general manager of the Coastal Plain League's Wilson Tobs. He replaces Shari Massengill, who left the K-Tribe after 13 seasons with the club (including five as general manager) to take an assistant general manager position with Triple-A Gwinnett under former Kinston GM North Johnson.
“I’m a real upbeat guy, and I like to do creative, different, fun things,” Jones told the Jacksonville (N.C.) News. “So I think that’ll come through in our promotions at the games and just the all-around atmosphere at the ballpark.
“The fans can expect to see a lot of the same, but with a few new twists mixed in here and there.”
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